# Lecture 3 «Recording of ECG & RHEO of ascending aorta in practice»

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1. Recording of ECG & RHEO of ascending aorta in practice: use of an original single-lead system including placement of an electrode on the anterior median line within the heart apex area.

Fig. 1 Scheme of electrode arrangement for recording ECG & RHEO of ascending aorta

2. Analysis: cardiac cycle phase structure

Fig. 2. Cardiac cycle phase structure according to ECG & RHEO

3. ECG first derivative curve: tool No.1 for identifying each of the cardiac cycle phase boundary.

Fig.3. Basics of graphical differentiation in mathematics. A local maximum (or a local minimum) of a derivative graph can be found out on the derivative curve as a function. At the local minimum or maximum point, we are dealing with energy change rate, i.e., energy decreasing or increasing. The same is applicable to our recorded curve: in this case, it reflects the maximum (or minimum) of the rate of changing process recorded.

Fig. 4. Derivative of a real ECG

4. Upon measuring durations of each cardiac cycle phase and substituting them into the hemodynamic equation by G. Poyedintsev – O. Voronova, the following 7 phase-related volumes of blood are calculated as listed below:

**SV** – stroke volume (ml);

**MV** – minute volume (l/min);

**PV1** – volume of blood entering the ventricle in the early diastole (ml);

**PV2** – volume of blood entering the left ventricle in the atrial systole (ml);

**PV3** – volume of blood ejected by the ventricle during the rapid ejection phase (ml);

**PV4** – volume of blood ejected by the ventricle during the slow ejection phase (ml);

**PV5** – volume of blood (SV fraction) pumped by the ascending aorta as peristaltic pump (ml).

1. Cardiometry

**2. Theory**

Lecture 1

Lecture 2

**Lecture 3**

3. Practice: animation

Phase Рн-Рк, Pк-Q

Phase Q-R

Phase R-S

Phase S-L

Phase L-j

Phase j-Тн

Phase Тн-Тк

Phase Тк-Рн

Analysis algorithm

4. Sports

Fitness

Biochemistry for exercise

5. For anesthesiologists

6. For cardiosurgeon

7. Validation & Certification

Registration documents

Patents

8. Congress materials

e-Journal «Cardiometry»

9. Contact details